The distinction between casual, full-time and part-time workers appears to be relatively straightforward. Casual workers are normally not entitled to paid annual or sick leave. Instead, they are paid casual loading of 25%. Recently, the Full Court of the Federal Court made findings in relation to the characteristics of a casual employee. It is common knowledge that certain benefits apply to different types of employment. However, a recent case in the Federal Court has addressed issues regarding casual workers and their entitlement to paid leave in certain circumstances. In this article, we review the meaning of a ‘casual worker’, the outcome of this recent case and what this case means for employees and employers alike.
Who is a casual worker?
A casual worker is an employee who does not have fixed obligations in relation to the length of time they will be employed and the hours they will work. They also do not receive paid leave such as sick or annual leave. A casual employee is usually required to work based on a roster, but this roster can change weekly and shifts are not guaranteed.
To compensate for the lack of commitment and the uncertainty, causal workers are paid ‘casual loading’. Causal loading means the worker is entitled to a higher rate of pay than full-time or part-time employees working in a similar role.
A recent update in the law.
On 20 May 2020, the Full Court of Federal Court handed down a decision which affirmed that the casual workers who work with a predictable shift schedule and the commitment to work for a set period of time, or indefinitely were not casual workers despite how their employment contract classified them. These workers are entitled to paid leave, such as annual, sick and carer’s leave.
In this particular case, Mr Rossato, a coal miner, was employed for three and a half years by a labour hire company called ‘WorkPac’. Mr Rossato worked on a variety of different projects as a permanent employee despite being labelled ‘casual worker’ in his employment contract. Justice Bromberg found that the fact that Mr Rossato’s work pattern was assigned well in advance under a set roster, which necessitated the on-going work during “the standard work week”, revealed that his employment was ‘regular, certain, continuing, constant and predictable’. These features were not that of a casual worker.
WorkPac argued that the total amount of casual loading paid to Mr Rossato ought to be set off against the annual and sick leave to be paid to Mr Rossato. The Full Court rejected this argument.
What does this mean for employees and employers?
It is vital that employers review the working nature of their casual employees to ensure they meet the requirements of this working type. If your casual workers appear to be working in a manner not consistent with a casual nature, you should discuss ways to fix this with your employee, perhaps through altering their employment contract to part-time or full-time employment.
Employees should firstly discuss their concerns with their employer if they feel they do not fall within the definition of a causal worker despite their classification under their employment contract. You should also consider seeking legal advice if you feel you are not receiving the correct entitlements.
Navigating employment law issues can often feel daunting and overwhelming. If you would like more information on how we can assist you in regards to your employment law concerns, do not hesitate to contact one of our employment law solicitors on 9963 9800 or at firstname.lastname@example.org. For more information, check out our blog here.
The COVID-19 is a health crisis that has caused extensive disruption to our way of life. Lockdown placing restrictions on travel and cautious spending habits, it is unlikely that the economy will see an immediate recovery to previous activity levels. This has had a notable impact upon workplace law as many employees have been stood down or made redundant. In response, the Fair Work Commission has acted to vary industry awards and will continue to conduct hearings for cases of unfair dismissal.
Redundancy and being ‘stood-down’
Many businesses have been shut down for being a non-essential business, or a result in reduced demand due to restrictions on movement. It is likely that the unemployment rate will take a long time to recover as a result of this environment of fear and uncertainty.
If you have been made redundant or stood down, it is important that you seek legal advice on whether the decision complied with the basic principles of workplace law. Unlawful termination of contracts of employment or enterprise agreements and unfair dismissal is a key issue in most employment law cases.
Fair Work Commission (‘Commission’) is conducting hearings and conferences for general protections and unfair dismissal but by way of phone or videoconference. If you have believe that you have been unfairly dismissed, you must apply to the Commission within 21 days of your dismissal taking effect. It is recommended that you seek legal advice prior to lodging an application to explore other avenues of action you could take.
The Fair Work Commission is in the process of varying industry awards to allow for more flexibility during the COVID-19 pandemic. On 8 April 2020, the Commission made determinations to vary 99 awards to provide for unpaid pandemic leave and great flexibility for annual leave for employees. The changes to these awards provide for two weeks of unpaid pandemic leave and the ability to take twice as much annual leave at half their normal pay if their employer agrees.
These measures will are temporary and are in effect until 30 June 2020. The leave does not need to have been accrued and is not pro-rated for employees who do not work full-time. If you are an employee looking to take unpaid pandemic leave, you should know your rights under this award as this should not affect other paid or unpaid leave entitlements or require you to use all your paid leave first.
Not surprisingly, there has been a surge in applications to the ATO for relief and JobKeeper payments (which are set to be released in May 2020). If an employer is eligible to receive these JobKeeper payments they have an optional right to give an employee a ‘JobKeeper enabling direction’ that entitles them to payments. If an employee agrees to the terms of the JobKeeper payments, this does not diminish their existing rights under workplace laws.
The employee must continue to be paid the same base rate, or the applicable penalty rates, and any other allowances that apply to the hours they work. An employee may be asked to work additional hours, and these hours need to be reasonable. An employee can refuse a request to work, and if the only reason for a request to work additional hours is to ‘match’ the amount of the JobKeeper payment, this is not likely to be a reasonable request. Under general protection provisions of the Fair Work Act, it is unlawful to for an employee to work unreasonable additional hours, or require this to be a condition in order to receive the JobKeeper payment.
It is important to be fully aware of your protections as an employee under workplace laws and your employment contract. If you would like more information on how we can assist you with your matter, do not hesitate to contact us on 9963 9800 or at email@example.com. Read more on our blog here for further more information and analysis on the restrictions and rules in place during COVID-19.
COVID-19 continues to disrupt the operation of businesses globally, presenting new challenges to company directors on how to continue to carry out their duties and obligations. While many directors are focused on the immediate practical implications of operating in these challenging times, directors must ensure they keep in mind their broader obligations to stakeholders under the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). In this article, we address the potential issues facing directors in the context of the current pandemic.
There are numerous statutory obligations directors must adhere to. Directors must continue their duty to act in good faith and in the best interests of the corporation. Given the uncertainties surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic it may be challenging for directors to determine how their immediate actions may impact the long-term success of the company and its various stakeholders.
While directors must of course focus on the immediate implications of operating in these uncertain times, they must ensure that they continue to act in good faith and in a reasonable manner and make decisions based on the most reliable and up-to-date information in front of them. Continue to place priority on protecting the health and welfare of staff, and consider enacting contingency plans to avoid exposing the company to outside risks.
Financial Reporting and Annual General Meetings
The coronavirus has temporarily impacted companies’ abilities to hold annual general meetings (AGMs). For listed and unlisted public companies required to hold an AGM by 31st May 2020, ASIC has confirmed that it would take no action if AGMs are postponed up to the end of July or if AGMs are held virtually in compliance with s 249S of the Corporations Act. The holding of virtual AGMs is permitted under the Corporations Act, however entities must check whether their constitution restricts meetings being held in this way and seek legal advice on section 1322 of the Corporations Act.
Insolvency and ‘COVID-19 safe harbour’ provisions
The Coronavirus Economic Response Package Omnibus Act 2020 included, among other measures, a new section 588GAAA into the Corporations Act granting temporary relief for financially distressed businesses. The amendments provide a ‘safe harbour’ to grant relief for directors from potential personal liability for insolvent trading.
In order to be able to rely on these measure, the debt leading to insolvency must have been incurred in the ordinary course of the company’s business, during the six month period commencing from the 25 March 2020 (or longer as prescribed in another regulation), and before any appointment of an administrator or liquidator during that period.
In relation to insolvent trading, directors should seek advice early from a qualified and independent advisor about the company’s financial affairs and the options available to manage the disruption caused by COVID-19.
Check out our blog here for further more information and analysis on the restrictions and rules in place during COVID-19.
It is important to be fully aware of your duties and obligations as a director during this rapidly evolving and challenging environment during COVID-19. If you would like more information on how we can assist you, do not hesitate to contact us on 9963 9800 or at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Fair Work Commission (FWC) announced on 1 April 2020, that it intends to temporarily amend 103 modern awards in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This amendment is set to operate until 30 June 2020. The FWC has confirmed that this initiative is intended to provide protection from dismissals for employees. This amendment is intended to provide employers and employees with additional flexibility amid COVID-19. In this article, we outline the temporary variations and what they mean for the impacted awards.
What are the temporary variations?
The FWC has proposed to temporarily vary 103 modern awards to:
- provide employees that are affected by COVID-19 (including full-time, part-time and casual employees) with an option to take 2 weeks unpaid pandemic leave; and
- Offer for employees, through agreement with their employer, to take twice as much annual leave at half the rate of pay.
Some examples of the impacted modern awards are the Aged Care Award 2010, Banking, Finance and Insurance Award 2010 and the Educational Services (Teachers) Award 2010.
A full list of the 103 awards can be found here on the FWC Statement, page 28.
Unpaid Pandemic Leave
The first proposed amendment would allow employees to elect to take up to 2 weeks unpaid leave. This is only available if the employee is “required, by government or medical authorities or acting on medical advice, to self-isolate or is otherwise prevented from working by measures taken by government or medical authorities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in circumstances where the employee is required to work at premises operated by an employer.”
Employees do not have to use any paid leave before accessing the unpaid pandemic leave, however they must provide reasonable evidence of the need to take unpaid pandemic leave.
Annual leave at Half the Rate
The proposed amendment also provides that an employer and employee may come to an agreement where the employee can elect to take up to twice as much annual leave at half the rate of usual pay. Additionally, the deduction from an employee’s leave loading balance must only be what would have been subtracted for half the period at full pay. For example, if an employee takes two weeks leave at half pay, only one week’s leave is to be deducted from their leave loading balance. It isimportant to note that any agreement between an employee and employer in relation to this scheme should be properly recorded in writing and retained on the employee’s record.
With so many changes happening in the legal sector at the moment due to COVID-19 it is important to be fully aware of your rights and obligations as an employee or an employer. If you would like more information on how we can assist you with your matter, do not hesitate to contact us on 9963 9800 or at email@example.com.
Check out our blog here for further information and analysis on the restrictions and rules in place during COVID-19.
Under work health and safety laws, all employers have a duty to ensure that their employees’ health and safety are protected as far as reasonably practicable. This means employers are required to take reasonable steps to ensure that the workplaces are without health and safety risks. With the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is important that employers provide as much information as possible about health and safety risks associated with COVID-19, ways to reduce those risks and ensure that they have a system in place to monitor and minimise the risks.
- restrict employee business travel but you cannot restrict personal travel
- direct employees to work from home if it is necessary to close your workplace for a period of time
- stand down employees in circumstances which the Fair Work Act permits
- direct employees to take annual leave provided that the applicable modern award or enterprise agreement permits.
- stay up to date with information released by state and federal health departments: www.health.gov.au
- keep employees up to date with health information
- provide hygiene facilities
- ensure that you change the way you interact with customers, for example, at shops:
- “no cash” and contactless card payment only policy install signs to remind customers comply with the social distancing rules
- install barriers so that customers do not stand too close to your workers
- consider directing employees to work from home if it is not possible to maintain the social distancing rule
- develop a contingency plan for the worst case scenario – when one of the employees tests positive.
Going forward, there will be disputes about whether COVID-19 is a workplace injury. This will depend on the circumstances of infection. It will be difficult for one to assess whether the infection occurred in the work place.
As an employer, you should also consider what your obligations are under the workers compensation insurance policy. In order to mitigate risks, you should ensure that you have best practices for work health and safety.
If you require assistance with understanding your obligations and minimise potential exposure to liability, please do not hesitate to contact one of our experienced employment and litigation solicitors on 02 9963 9800 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Working from home has become the predominant way businesses function given the recent effects of COVID-19 closing many workplaces. But what happens to the employees of a business where the essence of the work requires employee attendance and working from home is not feasible, for example in retail or hospitality? In this article, we explore what legal options employers have during this challenging time.
Normally, an employer can direct its employees to take annual leave during slow business seasons such as Christmas and New Year. What about in circumstances that are beyond the employer’s control and the business has to close?
Under the Fair Work Act 2009, an employer may ‘stand down’ an employee without pay during a period in certain circumstances if that employee cannot ‘usefully be employed’. An example of certain circumstances include industrial action, breakdown of machinery or a cause for which the employer cannot reasonably be held responsible.
A stand down happens when an employer sends employees home if there is no useful work for them to do due to the nature of the business and for reasons beyond an employer’s control. Whether an employee can be ‘usefully employed’ is a question to be determined on fact by having concern to the circumstances that warrant the stand down. For example, a retail company may stand down a worker due to a natural disaster as they are unable to be ‘usefully employed’ during this period of time.
Under this provision in the Act, an employer is not required to pay the employee during the stand down period. Full-time and part-time employees will still accrue annual and sick leave.
The repercussions of a stand down can be difficult for employees as they may be deprived of income for a long period of time. It is important that employers review provisions regarding stand down in modern awards, enterprise agreement or employment contracts to make sure that they comply with the relevant provisions.
What if you can still operate but are struggling with the cash flow?
Most employers would consider redundancy. However, you may consider agreeing with your employees to:
- temporarily reduce their salary;
- send employees on part paid leave; or
- send employees on leave without pay
so that employees can keep their jobs and businesses stay afloat.
It is important to be fully aware of your obligations and options as an employer during these difficult times. Likewise, employees should be fully briefed on their rights under their employment contracts when they face employment uncertainty. If you would like further information, please do not hesitate to contact one of our experienced employment law solicitors on 9963 9800 or via email at email@example.com.
More information about COVID-19 can be found here: www.health.gov.au